The Gothic revival . . . appeared in English gardens and architecture before it got into literature . . . . When the Gothic made its appearance in literature, Horace Walpole (1717–1797) was . . . a chief initiator, publishing The Castle of Otranto (1764), a short novel in which the ingredients are a haunted castle, a Byronic villain, mysterious deaths, supernatural happenings, a moaning ancestral portrait, a damsel in distress, and, as the Oxford Companion to English Literature puts it, "violent emotions of terror, anguish, and love."