To avoid plagiarism, you should cite a source when:
Remember, it's not just words that can be plagiarized, but thoughts and ideas too. If in doubt, err on the side of citation.
APA 7th edition requires in-text citations that include the author's last name and publication year in parenthesis. If the you are directly quoting a work, you should also include the page number. See examples below.
For the APA style bibliography, citations should be placed in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author. If you are citing an article without a specified author, use the Article Title. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word, proper names, and acronyms in the article title. Use only initials for authors' first and middle names. Write out all author names up to 20 authors.* For more than 20 authors, use ellipses.
1st author last name, first initial, 2nd author last name, first initial. (year). Article title. Journal title, volume (issue), page #s. DOI
Miller, A., Hess, J., Bybee, D., & Goodkind, J. (2018). Understanding the mental health consequences of family separation for refugees: Implications for policy and practice. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 88(1),26-37. doi:10.1037/ort0000272
Note: * indicates 7th edition updates
The following examples of the most commons types of citations are adapted from the 7th edition (2019) of the APA manual. For additional information browse the APA Style online guide at https://ereserves.uta.edu/2020/spring/APAWILL101.pdf
|Book, Single Author||Ball, P. (2001). Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.|
|Book, Multiple Authors||Bird, K., & Martin, J. S. (2005). American prometheus: The triumph and tragedy of J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.|
|Book, Editor||Silverstein, T. (Ed). (1974). Sir Gawain and the green knight. University of Chicago Press.|
|Chapter in a Book||Demos, J. (2001). Real lives and other fictions: Reconsidering Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose. In Carnes, M. (Ed.), Novel history: Historians and novelists confront America's past (and each other), (pp. 132-145).Simon and Schuster.|
|Journal Article without DOI||Burns, S. (2005). Ordering the artist's body: Thomas Eakins' acts of self-portrayal. American Art, 19(1), 90-102.|
|Website||Florida Department of Education. (2010). Next generation sunshine state standards: Grade two, social studies. http://www.floridastandards.org/Standards/FLStandardSearch.aspx|
Don't forget to cite any data sets you used to find demographic or statistical information for your paper.
Each citation must include these basic elements
Financial Services. (2018). Number of individuals experiencing homelessness in 2017. City of Austin, Texas Open Data. https://doi.org/10.26000/041.000023
Citation managers are very helpful for keeping your research organized and for citing sources in your papers. There are a few different ones out there, but I recommend Zotero, which is a free, open-source citation management software.