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Old APA Guide: Home

Details of writing and references according to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed.

Table of Contents

Home & Title Page 
   About the APA Manual, 6th Ed.
   Title Page 
Structure contents
   Citations and References
   Citing & Referencing Multiple Authors
      After Punctuation
      Spacing Equations
   Running Head
   Title on Manuscript
      Economy of Expression 
      Precision and Clarity 
         Third person 
         Editorial I/We

      Grammar and Usage 

      Statistical Procedures 
      Introduction Heading 
   Numbers and Statistics 
      Spacing Equations 
      Symbols, Math & Statistics
      Statistical Procedures 
      In General
      Permissible Changes
      From Electronic Sources 
   Personal Communications 
   Citations and References 
      Citations, In-Text 
         Reference data element order
         Reference authors
         Publication dates
         Publication data
         Electronic publications

      Personal Communications
      Multiple Authors 
Reference List
   Citations and Reference List
         Reference data element order
         Reference authors
         Publication dates
         Publication data
         Electronic publications
      Multiple Authors

   Digital Journal Articles
   Electronic Books
   Personal Communications
References in This Document
More Help

   College of Nursing Addendum
   Various Resources

   Disclaimer & Copyright Permission

2012 Official APA Supplement -
      APA style guide to electronic references
        (UTA MyMav required for opening)

Disclaimer and Copyright Permission

         By no means is this web site to be used as an authority on APA style. It is designed to assist in locating the appropiate passage in the sixth edition of The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Any paper or manuscript may also have requirements which differ from the manual. The APA may provide updates or interpretation on its website at any time ( Check both APA website and with the person who is to recieve the document for any changes.

         Copying and republishing the content of all or part of this web site is acceptable providing proper attribution is provided. Linking to all or parts of this web site may be done without notification or attribution.


Guide created by Helen Hough;
Updated and adapted by Peace Ossom Williamson.


University of Texas at Arlington
Central Library

About the 6th Edition of the APA Manual

         The 2010, the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (the Manual) includes some modifications from the 5th edition. In addition the content layout of this 6th edition, there are three major changes relative to manuscripts being prepared. There are additional minor changes.

         Major changes are how both manuscript headers and the headings are to be displayed. The manuscript header now includes the running head. Several levels of text headings are in bold. Reference retrieval data for digital resources are significantly modified from the 5th edition with the validation and inclusion of concepts from the 2007 supplement.

            Some of the minor changes include the move of the author's note from a separate page to the title page. This move is generally irrelevant to students as author's note is not usually required on student papers. Place of publication data in references include city and state or country where all U.S. states are identified by the U.S. Postal Service abbreviation and the names of all countries other than the U.S. are spelled out.

         Consult pages 125-167 of the Manual in regard to issues associated with displaying results in the graphic form of tables, charts, or figures.

           The Manual is explicitly designed for the publication process, although its used may also be required by instructors in student papers. The Manual should be consulted for additional information regarding writing style, crediting sources, specific reference examples and nuances of the publication process. Chapters Two and Three are well worth reading to develop better writing skills. Chapter Five provides wonderful background for creating clear and effective graphics. 

         This website is only to help students quickly find common and relevant information from the manual and web site and is not a component of the American Psychological Association (APA) web presence or APA style manual. The information provided here does not supersede the APA's authority over its own publication style. Consult the APA manual and website ( for authoritative information on the current APA publication style.

Components of the Title Page

      The title page has five parts, (a) the running head with page number, (b) the title, (c) the author's name, (d) the author's institutional affiliation, and (e) the author's note. Instructors often require specific format and content of author note as needed for academic purposed. Like the rest of the paper, the entire title page is also double spaced between lines of text, as appropriate.

The Running Head (Page Header) With Page Number

        The running head or page header is on every page of the manuscript and is located within the top margin. All manuscript pages have the running head and a page number, except those pages that are exclusively graphic and provided for layout purposes. It is comprised of a shortened title in all uppercase, justified left, and a page number justified to the right. This shortened title should convey the main idea of the full title but does not have to be phrased exactly as part of the full title. The title page header is formatted slightly differently to include the phrase Running head: (APA, 2010, p. 229). Every page should have the text of the header but only the title page had the Running head: phrase. Exclusive of this phrase, the text of header should be no more than 50 characters, including spaces and capitalization. Page numbering uses Arabic numerals, is justified right, include the title page as 1 with every page consecutively numbered. "Use the automatic functions of your word-processing program to generate headers and page number for your file" (APA, 2010, p. 230).


If you are using MS Word, use the Insert function to first insert the page number at the top right (Figure 1).
Go in front of the page number and start typing the header text. Separate the text from the page number with one or more tabs.
Check the font of the entire header to ensure all of it is in Times New Roman 12 pt, including the page number.

Copy the entire line and then click on the Different First Page option (Figure 2).
The header information will disappear but since it is on your clipboard, it can be quickly pasted again.
Check the title page and the subsequent page to ensure the phrase Running head: is only on the title page.

 Figure 1

Figure 2


Title (APA, 2010, pp. 23, 28)

       The title of the paper should be a summary of the main idea of the paper and "be fully explanatory when standing alone" (APA, 2010, p. 23). A title like "Assignment Two" does not convey any information about the content of the paper while a title, "Student Understanding and Use of APA Formatting Techniques" may be a better title. While 12 words is the recommended maximum length, do not use contractions or abbreviations to fit within this length. "The title should be typed in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered between the left and right margins, and positioned in the upper half of the page" (APA, 2010, p. 23).

      The full title is in two locations on the paper, once in the top half of the title page and once beginning as the first line of the first page of the manuscript text (APA, 2010, p. 28). The title at the beginning of the manuscript page is identical in format to the one on the title page, in uppercase and lowercase letters and centered within the left and right margins. The text of the content of the manuscript follows in normal paragraph form, left justified with the first line of each paragraph indented 0.1 in.

Author Name(s), Institutional Affliliation, and Author Note

       Below the title, the author or authors' names should be listed by order of contribution, when the first author contributed more to the content of the paper than subsequent ones  (APA, 2010, p. 24). The list of authors of a student paper created by a team of students may be in alphabetical order as the students are equally responsible for the content. Whether a single author or multiple authors, list specific authors by full first name, middle initial as appropriate, then surname and DO NOT include titles or degrees (e.g., Rev., Dr., RN, MSN) (APA, 2010, p. 23). If there are two authors, separate the authors' names with an and. If there are three or more authors, separate the authors' names with a comma and use an and just before the last author's name. On the next line below the name of the author or authors' should be the institutional affiliation. Spell out the name of the institution fully, for example, The University of Texas at Arlington (APA, 2010, pp. 23-24). In some cases of course work, student institutional affiliation may also include the specific university or college department. The author note is not usually included on student papers although some instructors may require instructor and course information in place of the author's note.



 Running head:  APA FORMATTING BY STUDENTS                                         1







Student Understanding and Use of APA Formating Techniques

Taylor Williams, Lee Adams, and Pat Smith

University of Texas at Arlington