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APA Guide (Based on the 6th Edition): Formatting: Figures, Tables & Images


Table Layout

Table Titles: The title should be concise, clear, and explanatory.

Table Headings: To establish your organization of the data and identify the columns of data beneath them. Each column of a table must have a heading, including the stub column or stub, which is the leftmost column of the table .

The sub or sub column: Lists the major independent or predictor variables.

Subordination within the stub is easier to comprehend if you indent the stub items rather than created an additional column.

Table body: Rows of cells containing primary data of the table.

Table notes:

            A general note qualifies, explains, or provides information relating to the table as a whole and ends with an explanation of any abbreviations, symbols, and the like.

            A specific note refers to a particular column, row, or cell. It is indicated by superscripts lowercase letters (eg.,  abc).

           A probability note indicates how asterisks and other symbols are used in a table to indication p values and thus the results of tests of statistical hypothesis testing.


NOTE: All headings identify items below them, NOT across from them.


See pages 128-150 of the manual for more information.




See pages 150-161 of the manual for more information.



Table Columns - More Info

Column Heads & Spanners

The headings just above the body of the table (called column heads and column spanners) identify the entries in the vertical columns in the body of the table.

A column head covers just one column, while a column spanner covers two or more column.

Decked heads is used to avoid repetition of words in column heads.

Images (photos & other graphics)

Electrophysiological Data

  • Clear label each data
  • Proper interpretation of the graphic
  • Eliminate extraneous materials from graphic presentation

Radiological (Imaging) Data

  • Clearly label left and right hemisphere when displaying axial or coronal sections
  • Clearly indicate each slice is of the right or the left hemisphere when saggital slices are displayed, 
  • Show an image that indicates where the slices were taken to help orient the reader

Genetic Data

  • Clear label genetic information, such as: deletion patterns , photographic stain variety
  • Present information concerning locations, distances, markers, and identifications


  • Start with rich contrast and sharp prints
  • Must be professional quality and be presented as black-and-white images
  • Crop and edit photographs as needed
  • Copyright of using photographs


See pages 161-167 of the manual for more information.



American Psychological Association. (2009). Displaying results. In Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (pp. 125-167). Washington, DC: Author.